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Table 3 PPI in SPCR projects, by study design, health condition, population and population age

From: The extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in primary care research: a mixed methods study

  Projects (Grant applications) Projects with evidence of PPI in developing the grant application
(N = 200)
Projects with evidence of plans for PPI during the study in the grant application (N = 200) Projects (Annual/ Final Reports)a Projects with evidence of PPI reported in annual/final reports (N = 181)
  n (%) n (%) (Relative %)b n (%) (Relative %)b n (%) n (%) (Relative %)c
All Projects 200 (100) 47 (23.5)   113 (56.5)   181 (181) 83 (46.1)  
Study Design
 Mixed methods 47 (23.5) 15 (7.5) (31.9) 30 (15.0) (63.8) 39 (21.5) 24 (13.3) (61.5)
 Qualitative 36 (18.0) 9 (4.5) (25.0) 23 (11.5) (63.9) 30 (16.6) 17 (9.4) (56.7)
 Longitudinal cohort 29 (14.5) 5 (2.5) (17.2) 18 (9.0) (62.1) 29 (16.0) 11 (6.1) (37.9)
 Intervention trial 25 (12.5) 6 (3.0) (24.0) 15 (7.5) (60.0) 23 (12.7) 14 (7.7) (60.9)
 Systematic reviews 17 (8.5) 2 (1.0) (11.8) 7 (3.5) (0.0) 17 (9.4) 2 (1.1) (11.8)
 Retrospective cohort 13 (6.5) 2 (1.0) (15.4) 4 (2.0) (30.8) 13 (7.2) 3 (1.7) (23.1)
 Secondary analysis 8 (4.0) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 4 (2.0) (50.0) 8 (4.4) 3 (1.7) (37.5)
 Cross sectional 7 (3.5) 4 (2.0) (57.1) 3 (1.5) (42.9) 7 (3.9) 4 (2.2) (57.1)
 Methodological 5 (2.5) 1 (0.5) (20.0) 4 (2.0) (80.0) 4 (2.2) 1 (0.6) (25.0)
 Case control 4 (2.0) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 1 (0.5) (25.0) 3 (1.7) 0 0 (0.0)
 Multi-stage studyd 4 (2.0) 2 (1.0) (50.0) 2 (1.0) (50.0) 2 (1.1) 2 (1.1) (100)
 Individual participant meta analysis 3 (1.5) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 1 (0.5) (33.3) 2 (1.1) 1 (0.6) (50.0)
 Othere 2 (1.0) 1 (0.5) (50.0) 1 (0.5) (50.0) 4 (2.2) 2 (1.1) (50.0)
Health Condition Under Study
 General Health 28 (14.0) 9 (4.5) (32.1) 14 (7.0) (50.0) 22 (12.2) 9 (0.0) (40.9)
 Cardiovascular 27 (13.5) 4 (2.0) (14.8) 16 (8.0) (59.3) 28 (15.5) 10 (5.5) (35.7)
 Mental Health 21 (10.5) 5 (2.5) (23.8) 12 (6.0) (57.1) 17 (9.4) 11 (6.1) (64.7)
 Cancer 16 (8.0) 7 (3.5) (43.8) 8 (4.0) (50.0) 16 (8.8) 10 (5.5) (62.5)
 Metabolic and Endocrine 14 (7.0) 1 (0.5) (7.1) 6 (3.0) (42.9) 16 (8.8) 9 (5.0) (56.3)
 Musculoskeletal 14 (7.0) 3 (1.5) (21.4) 6 (3.0) (42.9) 13 (7.2) 6 (3.3) (46.2)
 Respiratory 13 (6.5) 3 (1.5) (23.1) 6 (3.0) (46.2) 12 (6.6) 5 (2.8) (41.7)
 Multimorbidity 7 (3.5) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 1 (0.5) (14.3) 8 (4.4) 3 (1.7) (37.5)
 Stroke 7 (3.5) 1 (0.5) (14.3) 3 (1.5) (42.9) 5 (2.8) 2 (1.1) (40.0)
 Infection 5 (2.5) 1 (0.5) (20.0) 3 (1.5) (60.0) 5 (2.8) 1 (5.0) (20.0)
 Renal and Urogenital 5 (2.5) 2 (1.0) (40.0) 5 (2.5) (100) 5 (2.8) 3 (1.7) (60.0)
 Reproductive Health and Childbirth 5 (2.5) 2 (1.0) (40.0) 5 (2.5) (100) 5 (2.8) 4 (2.2) (80.0)
 Neurological 3 (1.5) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 3 (1.5) (100) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) (100)
 Cancer, Mental Health 1 (0.5) 1 (0.5) (100) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) (100)
 Inflammatory and Immune System 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Oral and Gastrointestinal 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) (0.0)
 Skin 1 (0.5) 1 (0.5) (100) 1 (0.5) (100) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) (100)
 Otherf 31 (15.5) 7 (3.5) (22.6) 24 (12.0) (77.4) 23 (12.7) 8 (4.4) (34.8)
Study population
 Patients 134 (67.0) 26 (13.0) (19.4) 68 (34.0) (50.7) 123 (68.0) 54 (29.8) (43.9)
 Patients & HCPs 37 (18.5) 11 (5.5) (29.7) 24 (12.0) (64.9) 31 (17.1) 20 (11.0) (64.5)
 Healthcare professionals (HCPs) 15 (7.5) 5 (2.5) (33.3) 10 (5.0) (66.7) 8 (4.4) 3 (1.7) (37.5)
 General public 13 (6.5) 5 (2.5) (38.5) 10 (5.0) (76.9) 15 (8.3) 7 (3.9) (46.7)
 Carers 1 (0.5) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 1 (0.5) (100) 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) (0.0)
Study population age
 Unspecified 93 (46.5) 19 (9.5) (20.4) 54 (27.0) (58.1) 83 (45.9) 35 (19.9) (43.4)
 Adult (18+ years) 89 (44.5) 24 (12.0) (27.0) 50 (25.0) (56.2) 83 (45.9) 42 (23.2) (50.6)
 Adult and Children 11 (5.5) 4 (2.0) (36.4) 7 (3.5) (63.6) 9 (5.0) 5 (2.8) (55.6)
 Children and young adults (0–17 years)g 7 (3.5) 0 (0.0) (0.0) 2 (1.0) (28.6) 6 (3.3) 1 (0.6) (16.7)
  1. aIncluded one project whose data on PPI was obtained from an SPCR poster
  2. bPercentage relative to the number of projects in each category in grant applications
  3. cPercentage relative to the number of projects in each category in annual/final reports
  4. dMulti-stage studies included case control and intervention trial (1), cross sectional and longitudinal cohort (1), systematic review and longitudinal cohort (1), systematic review and secondary analysis
  5. eIncluded projects to set up and maintain a SPCR PPI group (1) and a preliminary descriptive study (1)
  6. fConditions not classified under the Health Research Classification System [24]
  7. gIt was not always possible to determine the ages or age range of children from the study documentation. Sometimes, ages were provided, sometimes the documentation referred to ‘children’. So we have assumed children and young adults to be 17 and under