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Table 5 Recommendations for improving the practice and delivery of PPI in research

From: The extent, quality and impact of patient and public involvement in primary care research: a mixed methods study

Key Findings

Recommendations for improving PPI in research

Best Practice

 A. Overall PPI in research was low and inconsistent across research design and topics

1. Promote PPI as a core research function in all research by raising awareness of its value and impact

 B. PPI was mostly limited to a few activities in the research cycle

2. Identify and share good examples of PPI activity across the research cycle to improve range and quality of PPI in future funded projects

3. Raise awareness of and promoting the role of PPI in the lowest areas of activity, where appropriate and justified

 C. ‘Best Practice’ was inconsistent

4. Create dedicated champion(s) for PPI within research institutions to promote best practice

5. Establish and implement a best practice framework to enable appropriate and meaningful PPI

6. Stimulate sharing of best practice and resources for PPI across research organisations and institutions

7. Improve the skills of researchers and member of the public for PPI

8. Establish a culture in which a) rewards and reimbursement of expenses are offered to PPI contributors as a matter of routine practice and b) PPI is appropriately costed in research

9. Improve and support the recording and reporting of PPI

10. Improve the accountability of public funded research to the general public

 D. Time to do PPI is the biggest consequence to researchers

11. Raise awareness of time commitment for meaningful PPI so researchers can plan for it effectively

 E. PPI is good for research and researchers

12. Continue to showcase and celebrate the impact of PPI in research

SPCR Systems and Processes

 A. Overall PPI activity in research was low

13. Increase the overall PPI activity in SPCR projects, by developing networks for PPI groups and researchers, and encouraging sustainable processes and infrastructure for PPI

 B. PPI was mostly limited to a few activities in the research cycle

14. Increase the range of appropriate PPI in SPCR funded research, by providing more guidance and support to researchers and grant reviewers

 C. PPI is poorly recorded and reported

15. Improve the recording and reporting of PPI in SPCR to promote transparency, support diversity and enable the evaluation of impact by improving reporting form templates and better monitoring of PPI in SPCR activities and funded research