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Table 3 Framing case studies using the PRODUCES method

From: Framework, principles and recommendations for utilising participatory methodologies in the co-creation and evaluation of public health interventions

PRODUCES Case 1 Case 2 Case 3
Problem Older adults are too sedentary and spend long periods sitting Accidental falls causes individual suffering and substantial costs to society Adolescent girls have low levels of physical activity. Many interventions fail to induce an effect on girls’ physical activity level, often because this target group is difficult to reach and less likely to engage in interventions
Objective To design an intervention that will help older adults break up long sitting periods To design a mobile application that will enable seniors to create and adhere to an individually tailored strength and balance exercise programme To design an intervention to promote physical activity
Design PAAR PAAR PAR
(end-) Users Community-dwelling older adults over 65 years of age Community-dwelling older adults over 70 years of age 10th grade lower educated adolescent girls
Co-creators University researchers and community-dwelling older adults University researchers and community-dwelling older adults University researchers and lower educated adolescent girls
Evaluation Process evaluation Process and effect evaluation Process and effect evaluation
Scalability Generalisable model Generalisable model Distributed model
  1. PAR Participatory Action Research, PAAR Participatory Appreciative Action and Reflection