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Table 2 Summary of challenges associated with recruitment in co-design research

From: Recruitment of caregivers into health services research: lessons from a user-centred design study

Research Phase Challenges Actions Costs
Grant writing - Limited experience with co-design research
- Limited knowledge of recruitment strategies
- Limited anticipation of time, human resources, and costs associated with recruitment
Engaging one family caregiver on the research team at the time of grant writing
- Self-training the co-design research within limited time
- Stress and time pressure especially close to the grant submission time
Planning for data collection - Limited familiarity with family caregiver’s context and realities
- Non-feasibility of research methods in the original grant proposal
(Re) co-designing methods with trusted community caregivers organizations - Traveling costs to visit community partners
- Time to build trust with community partners
Data collection - Ensuring shared understanding and building trust
- Accommodating family caregivers’ preferences for time and locations
- Prolonged data collection process longer than anticipated
- Frequent email communications with interested family caregivers prior to FGs
- Seeking extension from funder
- Time
- Long distance travels
- Working with limited financial and human resources
Recruitment Strategies
 Partnering with caregiver organizations - Slow and lengthy process due to missing resources, mutual misunderstanding, and absent trust
- Misalignment of values, roles and expectations
- Constant communications with to build trust and to (re)co-design the research methodology - Human, time, and financial resources
 Social and print media - High cost compared to least effectiveness
- Receiving many irrelevant email inquiries
- Designing professional social and print media - High financial cost
- Time
 Flyers in geriatrics clinics Clinic staff time constraints, bureaucratic rules and procedures, and potential of perceived competing interests - Designing professional yet lay-public friendly flyers - Time and financial resources associated with designing professional flyers
 Traditional snowball sampling -Least effective in recruiting
- Relying on word-of-mouth referrals
- Seeking recruited family caregivers to engage other family caregivers - Time