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Table 3 Characteristics of included studies

From: Co-producing a shared understanding and definition of empowerment with people with dementia

Author, date & Country Title Methodology Participants Def of empowerment (as used by authors) Constructs/associated terms
Beard et al. [7] USA Managing disability and enjoying life: How we reframe dementia through personal narratives. Survey PWD (n = 27) Not defined. Talked about ‘enriching’ their lives through - advocacy, positive attitude, participation in society.
Carpenter et al. (2012) USA R-E-M psychotherapy: A manualized approach for long-term care residents with depression and dementia. Pilot trial PWD (n = 3) Not defined. Using abilities. Active + positive agency. Skills. Control. Confidence. Creating change.
Clare (2008) UK Collective strength: The impact of developing a shared social identity in early-stage dementia. Semi structured interviews (Interpretative phenomenoligical analysis). Longitudinal study. PWD (n = 7) Not defined. Choice. Control. Active participation (care and treatment).
Gavan [27] Australia Exploring the usefulness of a recovery-based approach to dementia care nursing. Theoretical literature review   Not defined. Choice
Han & Radel [30] USA The benefits of a person-centered social program for community-dwelling people with dementia and caregivers: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Semi structured interviews (Interpretative phenomenoligical analysis) PWD (n = 5) Choice and control. choice and control.
Harding [31] UK Legal constructions of dementia: discourses of autonomy at the margins of capacity Theoretical   Not defined. Decision making, effecting change
Hung & Chaudhury [34] Canada Exploring personhood in dining experiences of residents with dementia in long-term care facilities. Ethnographic. Conversational interviews, participant observations, focus groups and document review   Disempowerment - not being allowed to use abilities. Allowed to use abilities
Martin & Younger [39] UK Anti oppressive practice: a route to the empowerment of people with dementia through communication and choice. Dementia Care Mapping observation process. PWD Process of helping individuals attain autonomy (relative to decision making) and process of changing the culture and organisation (care setting). Autonomy (decision making), process.
Nomura et al. (2000) Japan Empowering older people with early dementia and family caregivers: A participatory action research study. Process evaluation - cognitive rehabilitation theory PWD (n = 37) + their carers (n = 31) Objectives of empowerment (defined by carers) - regain self confidence and improve relationships with family. Self confidence + relationships. Levels of empowerment - individual, group, community
Wilkinson (2000) UK Empowerment and decision-making for people with dementia: The use of legal interventions in Scotland. Literature review   Recognizing and enhancing rights + supporting capacity. Being heard and respected (voice, values + vision). Decision making. Control. Involvement. Self determination. Autonomy.