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Table 2 SMARTER participant characteristics in each activity

From: Comparing three approaches for involving patients in research prioritization: a qualitative study of participant experiences

Participant characteristics (n[%])Crowd-votingFocus groupDelphi surveyp-value
N383974 
Age (mean [SDa])b74.03 (3.81)75.14 (4.29)77.19 (6.13)0.03
Sex
 Female18 (50%)27 (71%)44 (61%) 
 Not reported212 
Racec   0.18
 Black or African American2 (6%)9 (26%)8 (11%) 
 Native American Indian or Alaska Native1 (3%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 
 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander1 (3%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 
 Asian2 (6%)3 (9%)2 (3%) 
 White30 (83%)22 (65%)60 (83%) 
 Other0 (0%)0 (0%)2 (3%) 
 Multiple races0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 
 Not reported252 
Hispanic ethnicity   0.45
 Hispanic0 (0%)1 (3%)4 (6%) 
 Not reported353 
Educationd   0.04
 Less than high school graduate1 (1%)0 (0%)1 (1%) 
 High school graduate or obtained general equivalent diploma1 (3%)4 (11%)8 (11%) 
 Associate’s degree1 (3%)3 ()6 (8%) 
 Some college6 (16%)8 (21%)19 (26%) 
 Four-year college graduate10 (27%)10 (26%)15 (20%) 
 Professional or graduate degree19 (51%)13 (34%)25 (34%) 
 Not reported110 
Marital statuse   0.77
 Married20 (54%)17 (46%)38 (51%) 
 Living with partner1 (3%)3 (8%)2 (3%) 
 Divorced6 (16%)8 (22)11 (15%) 
 Separated1 (3%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 
 Never married1 (3%)1 (3%)2 (3%) 
 Widowed8 (22%)8 (22%)21 (28%) 
 Not reported120 
How long has low back pain been an ongoing problem for you?f   0.11
 3–6 months1 (3%)0 (0%)1 (1%) 
 6 months-1 year0 (0%)2 (5%)2 (3%) 
 1–5 years9 (24%)13 (34%)30 (43%) 
 More than 5 years28 (74%)23 (61%)37 (53%) 
 Not reported014 
How often has low back pain been an ongoing problem for you over the past 6 months?g   0.60
 Less than half the days in the past 6 months21 (55%)14 (37%)34 (47%) 
 At least half the days in the past 6 months6 (16%)10 (26%)15 (21%) 
 Every day or nearly every day in the past 6 months11 (29%)14 (37%)23 (32%) 
 Not reported012 
In the past 7 days, how would you rate your low back pain on average? (mean [SD])3.9 (1.82)4.8 (2.33)4.2 (2.13)0.21
  1. Notes: a) SD = standard deviation; b) 1 participant in the Delphi survey and 2 participants in the focus group activity were missing data on age; c) p-value for race determined from Chi-square test of white or Caucasian vs. any other race; d) p-value for education determined from Chi-square test of four-year college graduate or more vs. less than four-year college graduate; e) p-value for marital status determined from Chi-square test of married vs. any other status; f) p-value for “how long has low back pain been an ongoing problem for you?” determined from Chi-square test of more than 5 years vs. any other status; g) p-value for “how often has low back pain been an ongoing problem for you over the past 6 months?” determined from Chi-square test of all categories