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Table 4 Characteristics of evaluation survey respondents

From: Comparing three approaches for involving patients in research prioritization: a qualitative study of participant experiences

Participant characteristics (n[%])Crowd-voting
(N = 26)
Focus group
(N = 34)
Delphi survey
(N = 63)
p-value
Agea(mean [SD])74.36 (4.24)75.19 (4.11)76.79 (5.94)0.03
Sex   0.65
 Female15 (60%)23 (70%)37 (61%) 
 Not reported012 
Raceb   0.28
 Black or African American1 (4%)7 (24%)8 (13%) 
 Native American Indian or Alaska Native1 (4%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 
 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander1 (4%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 
 Asian2 (8%)2 (7%)1 (2%) 
 White20 (80%)20 (69%)51 (84%) 
 Other0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (2%) 
 Multiple races0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 
 Not reported052 
Hispanic ethnicity   0.81
 Hispanic0 (0%)1 (3%)3 (5%) 
 Not reported243 
Educationc   0.30
 Less than high school graduate0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (2%) 
 High school graduate or obtained general equivalent diploma1 (4%)4 (12%)7 (11%) 
 Associate’s degree0 (0%)3 (9%)6 (10%) 
 Some college6 (24%)6 (18%)15 (24%) 
 Four-year college graduate7 (28%)9 (27%)13 (21%) 
 Professional or graduate degree11 (44%)11 (33%)21 (33%) 
 Not reported010 
Marital statusd   0.78
 Married14 (56%)15 (47%)33 (52%) 
 Living with partner0 (0%)3 (9%)2 (3%) 
 Divorced2 (8%)7 (22%)9 (14%) 
 Separated1 (4%)0 (0%)0 (0%) 
 Never married1 (4%)1 (3%)2 (3%) 
 Widowed7 (28%)6 (19%)17 (27%) 
 Not reported020 
How long has low back pain been an ongoing problem for you?e   0.27
 3–6 months0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (2%) 
 6 months-1 year0 (0%)1 (3%)2 (3%) 
 1–5 years7 (28%)10 (30%)24 (40%) 
 More than 5 years18 (72%)22 (67%)33 (55%) 
 Not reported013 
How often has low back pain been an ongoing problem for you over the past 6 months?f   0.34
 Less than half the days in the past 6 months15 (60%)12 (36%)33 (53%) 
 At least half the days in the past 6 months3 (12%)10 (30%)12 (19%) 
 Every day or nearly every day in the past 6 months7 (28%)11 (33%)17 (27%) 
 Not reported011 
In the past 7 days how would you rate your low back pain on average? (mean [SD])3.9 (1.82)4.9 (2.31)4.1 (2.16)0.15
  1. Note:a) p-value determined from Kruskal-Wallis test; b) p-value for race determined from Chi-square test of White or Caucasian vs. any other race; c) p-value for education determined from Chi-square test of four-year college graduate or more vs. less than four-year college graduate; d) p-value for marital status determined from Chi-square test of married vs. any other status; e) p-value for “how long has low back pain been an ongoing problem for you?” determined from Chi-square test of more than 5 years vs. any other status; f) p-value for “how often has low back pain been an ongoing problem for you over the past 6 months?” determined from Chi-square test of all categories