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Table 2 Mapping doctoral research principles in practice against the values and principles framework

From: Patient and public involvement in doctoral research: reflections and experiences of the PPI contributors and researcher

ValuesSummary principlesDoctoral research principles in practice
RespectResearchers, research organisations and the public respect one another’s roles and perspectives• Different PPI contributors were involved in decisions about research in different ways from being involved at proposal development to dissemination of research.
• PPI contributors were acknowledged for their contributions in the PhD thesis and they will co-author publications.
SupportResearchers, research organisations and the public have access to practical and organisational support to involve and be involved• Doctoral researcher (SD) had the opportunity to attend various PPI training that supported PPI in this research.
• SD provided educational session to PPI contributors on systematic reviews, qualitative research especially data collection and analysis.
• Planning PPI and related activities from the outset enabled allocation of realistic timelines for PPI input and incorporating that into the different stages of the research project.
• Allocated costs to undertake PPI throughout the doctoral research to cover for their time and expenses.
• The Greater Manchester PSTRC provided infrastructure that supported PPI in their research and allocated 6% of its total budget to PPI.
TransparencyResearchers, research organisations and the public are clear and open about the aims and scope of involvement in the research• Initial meeting to discuss ground rules, expectation management, clarity on roles. Discussion around levels of involvement including type of contribution and duration of involvement.
• PPI contributors were open about their availability, time commitment and ability to contribute.
• Payment policy was outlined from the outset so the contributors knew what type of payment they would receive, for the type of work they would receive and childcare and travel costs would be covered.
ResponsivenessResearchers and research organisations actively respond to the input of public members involved in research• While we had an agenda for meetings, there was flexibility to voice opinions at any time point during the meeting and the agenda was to offer structure rather than a setting stone for what was discussed and how.
• Feedback from PPI contributors were incorporated at different stages of the research project.
Fairness of opportunityResearchers and research organisations ensure that public involvement in research is open to individuals and communities without discrimination• PPI contributors from diverse backgrounds were involved at different stages of the research project.
• Building trust and relationship with PPI contributors during the research project allowed to sustain long-term involvement and for the PPI contributors to understand the research and processes involved.
• Arrangements were made to ensure that the venue was accessible, paper copies of the documents that required reviewing was posted to the PPI contributors.
• New PPI contributor (VP) had the opportunity to choose whether to be involved in the wider Greater Manchester PSTRC RUG.
AccountabilityResearchers, research organisations and the public are accountable are accountable for their involvement in research and to people affected by the research• Keeping PPI contributors in loop from start to finish and between meetings to maintain regular contact regarding progress.
• Study participants were invited to take part in the dissemination event.
• PPI contributors were made aware of how their input had an impact on the project.
• Learning and reflecting on PPI in this doctoral research project through this paper.