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Table 2 Mean changes in questionnaire responses for pre- and post-test and statistical summary of the paired t-test

From: The Canadian retinoblastoma research advisory board: a framework for patient engagement

QuestionPre-Test Mean (n = 20)Post-Test Mean (n = 20)Difference Mean
1. Retinoblastoma research is only relevant to clinicians.4.714.860.14
2. Retinoblastoma clinicians lack the knowledge or skills needed to use research in their practice.4.144.330.19
3. Retinoblastoma research is not relevant to the day-to-day lives of patients.4.674.670.00
4. All patients should be given the opportunity to learn about, and participate in, retinoblastoma research.1.481.290.19
5. Patients are encouraged to be involved in retinoblastoma research.1.761.670.10
6. I can have a meaningful impact on retinoblastoma research.1.621.330.29
Statistical Summary 
 Mean3.063.02
 Standard Deviation1.601.76
 Standard Error Mean0.650.72
 N66
  1. P-value = 0.625, M = 0.0397, SD = 0.1867, 95% CI [−0.1562, 0.2356].