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Table 4 Concerns connected to strategies, tools and methods—institutional level

From: Engaging citizens living in vulnerable circumstances in research: a narrative review using a systematic search

Concern Suggested strategy Suggested tools and methods
Involvement of citizens living in vulnerable circumstances is costly and time-consuming [17, 26, 42, 43, 51, 54, 59, 63, 66, 72, 79] Make sure the funding body agrees on methodology [43, 60]
Community partners have different priorities [7, 17, 25, 44, 54, 82] Build trust with community partners [63, 65, 82] Undertake ‘shoe-leather’ research [63, 65]
Be transparent about the goals, values, and principles of the research [54, 63]
Make time to clarify expectations [54, 63]
Avoid regular changes of research staff [54, 43, 82]
Create a mutual interest [47]
Be transparent about the resources involved [7, 27]
Host cost-neutral activities [27, 43, 48, 54, 65] Remunerate staff or volunteers of CBOs for their efforts [7, 27]
Be transparent about the resources involved [7, 27]
Collect data within the context of already planned activities [54, 63]
Unbalanced power dynamics in interactions [3, 7, 25, 30, 41, 43, 47, 49, 51, 54, 59, 60, 61, 65, 72, 75, 79] Act as a facilitator rather than a decision maker [43, 51, 58, 60, 61, 72]
Avoid pressure to reach a consensus [42, 51, 54] Anonymous voting [42]
Direct ranking exercise [23, 49, 51, 58]
Empower citizens through adaptations of ‘mainstream’ communicative spaces [25, 60, 72] Do not use complex terms [1, 43, 54, 61]
Wear informal clothing [51]
Avoid professionals’ bureaucratic concerns [25]
(Train) community members as peer researchers or co-facilitators [42, 43, 44, 48, 52, 59, 60, 61, 63, 79]
Support continual evaluation of the process [44]
Involve experienced facilitators [44, 49, 51, 69]
Have an open agenda [26, 51, 72]
Co-generate ground rules for engagement [26, 51, 60]
Build on the capacities and knowledge and empower those involved by offering easily accessible activities [25, 47, 48, 51] See Table 3, in addition
Self-recording [51, 72]
Only the usual suspects are engaged [43, 58, 72] Create informal engagement opportunities [72]
Avoid inclusion criteria [43]
  1. CBO community-based organization