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Table 6 Condensed list of PRO diabetes outcome constructs

From: The participatory development of a national core set of person-centred diabetes outcome constructs for use in routine diabetes care across healthcare sectors

Abbreviated list of PRO constructs Additional rationale
Self-reported health Staying healthy and able to function well is a key goal
Predicts care needs, outcomes and complements clinical data [52, 116]
Psychological well-being Psychological well-being and mental health is a key goal
Predicts care needs, outcomes, quality of life, risk of depression [117]
Impact on general quality of life Minimising diabetes impact on quality of life, work/study, family/ social life, leisure life, financial situation is a key goal [19, 22, 58, 118]
Diabetes related emotional distress Minimising diabetes distress is a key goal. Diabetes-related emotional distress (fears, worries, frustration, self-blame, exhaustion, stress due to diabetes) predicts self-care and prognosis [119, 120]
Symptom distress Minimising symptom distress (incl. sleep [121,122,123], heart, pain [124,125,126], sexual function [61], gastrointestinal [127], feet, eyes) is a key goal. Symptoms predicts care needs, outcomes, and quality of life [47, 128]
Burden of daily managing own diabetes treatment Minimising burden of diabetes treatment related to side-effects, medication taking, self-monitoring, requirements for planning and restrictive lifestyle is a key goal. Burden of treatment is predictive of self-management, quality of life and long-term outcomes [66, 129,130,131,132]
Burden of hypoglycemia Minimising the burden of hypoglycemia is a key goal. Hypoglycemia impacts emotional health, self-management, daily functioning and life quality. Hypoglycemia burden predicts care needs, clinical and quality of life outcomes [69, 70, 99]
Confidence in ability to manage diabetes Confidence in being able to self-manage diabetes is a key goal
Self-efficacy predicts support needs, self-management, clinical and quality of life outcomes and complements clinical and behavioral data [133, 134]
Confidence in access to person-centred diabetes care and support Feeling secure and confident in having quality medical care, relevant technologies and self-management support available is a key goal [42, 135]