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Table 2 Perspectives on terminology and conceptualisation of care (taking ‘drinking/hydration’ as an example)

From: Determining priorities for research to improve fundamental care on hospital wards

  Who’s perspective?
Care giver Care recipient
Goals/Objectives of care: activities of daily living that patients may require help with whilst in hospital Maintain hydration Have enough to drink
Action: the types of intervention undertaken by care providers (primarily nursing staff) Assist with drinks, administer IV fluids Be given drinks
Associated activity/resource to enable care need met • Fluid balance charts/systems in place
• Organisation of responsibilities between staff (roles)
• Sufficient staff to ensure drinking assistance and fluid monitoring undertaken
• Routines-water jugs provided, drinks rounds, drinks placed in reach, suitable drinking aids
• Nurses know what I’ve drunk
• I know how to get drinks
• Range/choice of drinks available
• I’m given help when I need it to ensure I have enough drinks or other fluids
• I have sufficient access to drinks
Consequences/Outcomes Clinical outcomes/measures of successful hydration (and dehydration)
- Fluid in-balance
- Skin condition
Evidence/outcomes of poor hydration
- Increased risk of urinary tract infection
- Impaired cognitive function
Experience associated with hydration or dehydration:
- Thirst quenched/feel thirsty
- Comfort/pleasure eg. ‘enjoying nice cup of tea’