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Table 3 Patient engagement across the IKT research process

From: Patient and Public Engagement in Integrated Knowledge Translation Research: Are we there yet?

KNOWLEDGE-TO-ACTION CYCLE ACTIVITIES/OUTCOMES POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF PATIENTS WITHIN IKT RESEARCH TEAMS
Knowledge creation Knowledge inquiry • Identification of patient experiences, needs, priorities and values • Conceptualization of the research problem from a patient perspective • Co-creation of responsive research questions • Potential to contribute to the collection, analysis and interpretation of primary research data with the appropriate skill set (e.g. patient partners that have participated in formal research training).
  Knowledge synthesis • Identification of patient experiences, needs, priorities and values • Facilitating opportunities for the co-creation of responsive questions for knowledge synthesis activities • Potential to participate in the collection, analysis and interpretation of research literature from a patient perspective. • Identification of relevant literature or resources for inclusion in the knowledge synthesis, such as grey literature and patient education resources.
  Knowledge tools • Identification of patient experiences, needs, priorities and values to inform the development and testing of tools • Participate in the co-creation of responsive knowledge tools, such as patient decision-aids and KT tools.
Action Cycle Identify knowledge gap • Share lived experience of an illness or healthcare interaction • Create and foster linkages with a patient population or community • Identify knowledge gaps and barriers from the perspectives of patients • Engage in consensus approaches to determine patient priorities, such as a Delphi technique or Deliberative Dialogue
  Adapt knowledge • Identify patient experiences, needs, priorities and values • Provide contextual insights and perspectives of health service users •Identify contextual factors that may impact the adaption and implementation of evidence
  Assess barriers and facilitators • Share lived experience of an illness or healthcare interaction • Assist in the assessment and evaluation of barriers and facilitators within a healthcare context or the specific needs of a patient population • Identify potential ways to access a patient community to assess barriers and facilitators
  Select, tailor and implement interventions • Participate in the prioritization of potential interventions or implementation strategies • Participate in the development of tailored and responsive healthcare interventions • Identify important research and evaluation questions relevant to implementation • Provide leadership or a lay perspective on the development of patient-centred healthcare interventions and tools
  Monitor knowledge user • Identify and inform the development and implementation of evaluate tools and techniques • Assess the uptake or patient-oriented interventions or tools • Provide a connection with patient populations impacted by the healthcare issue and research
  Evaluate outcomes • Provide input in to the development and implementation of evaluation activities and tools • Develop evaluation tools oriented for use by patients and the public
  Sustain knowledge use • Lead or develop ongoing evaluation cycles • Participate in activities to adapt interventions or implementation processes as needed. • Participate in the reporting of evaluation outcomes