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Table 3 Patient engagement across the IKT research process

From: Patient and Public Engagement in Integrated Knowledge Translation Research: Are we there yet?

KNOWLEDGE-TO-ACTION CYCLE ACTIVITIES/OUTCOMES POTENTIAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF PATIENTS WITHIN IKT RESEARCH TEAMS
Knowledge creation Knowledge inquiry • Identification of patient experiences, needs, priorities and values
• Conceptualization of the research problem from a patient perspective
• Co-creation of responsive research questions
• Potential to contribute to the collection, analysis and interpretation of primary research data with the appropriate skill set (e.g. patient partners that have participated in formal research training).
  Knowledge synthesis • Identification of patient experiences, needs, priorities and values
• Facilitating opportunities for the co-creation of responsive questions for knowledge synthesis activities
• Potential to participate in the collection, analysis and interpretation of research literature from a patient perspective.
• Identification of relevant literature or resources for inclusion in the knowledge synthesis, such as grey literature and patient education resources.
  Knowledge tools • Identification of patient experiences, needs, priorities and values to inform the development and testing of tools
• Participate in the co-creation of responsive knowledge tools, such as patient decision-aids and KT tools.
Action Cycle Identify knowledge gap • Share lived experience of an illness or healthcare interaction
• Create and foster linkages with a patient population or community
• Identify knowledge gaps and barriers from the perspectives of patients
• Engage in consensus approaches to determine patient priorities, such as a Delphi technique or Deliberative Dialogue
  Adapt knowledge • Identify patient experiences, needs, priorities and values
• Provide contextual insights and perspectives of health service users
•Identify contextual factors that may impact the adaption and implementation of evidence
  Assess barriers and facilitators • Share lived experience of an illness or healthcare interaction
• Assist in the assessment and evaluation of barriers and facilitators within a healthcare context or the specific needs of a patient population
• Identify potential ways to access a patient community to assess barriers and facilitators
  Select, tailor and implement interventions • Participate in the prioritization of potential interventions or implementation strategies
• Participate in the development of tailored and responsive healthcare interventions
• Identify important research and evaluation questions relevant to implementation
• Provide leadership or a lay perspective on the development of patient-centred healthcare interventions and tools
  Monitor knowledge user • Identify and inform the development and implementation of evaluate tools and techniques
• Assess the uptake or patient-oriented interventions or tools
• Provide a connection with patient populations impacted by the healthcare issue and research
  Evaluate outcomes • Provide input in to the development and implementation of evaluation activities and tools
• Develop evaluation tools oriented for use by patients and the public
  Sustain knowledge use • Lead or develop ongoing evaluation cycles
• Participate in activities to adapt interventions or implementation processes as needed.
• Participate in the reporting of evaluation outcomes