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Table 1 Brief overview of the four doctoral research studies

From: Patient and public involvement in designing and conducting doctoral research: the whys and the hows

All four doctoral researchers (KM, JT, VC, SK) are practicing pharmacists within the University of Bradford’s Medicines Optimisation Research Group. Their research interests are focused on improving the safe use of medicines.
• KM’s study is exploring the barriers and enablers to the uptake of new medicines within health care organisations, using oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation as an example. The aim of the project is to produce recommendations for optimising local implementation of nationally recommended medicines. The PPI members involved in the project were patients (middle-aged and older adults) with long-term conditions who were taking the studied medicines.
• JT’s study aims to design new ways to support post-discharge medicines continuity for older people living with long-term conditions. She has involved four PPI members (three older people with experience of medicines changes at discharge and one informal family carer) throughout her study, who have greatly helped to contextualise the research topic.
• VC’s doctoral research explored the medicines-related risks of repeated hospital admissions in older patients living with frailty [13], and the management of this with pharmacists’ interventions. Part of her study involved an online survey (Delphi method). VC engaged with an established online PPI panel of 30 former or current patients at her local hospital Trust who regularly reviewed participant research documentation.
• SK’s study focuses on medicines reconciliation processes within hospital and the patient role. SK worked with an already established PPI panel at her local hospital Trust. Six members of the panel took part in SK’s PPI activities (age range: 44 – 70 years).