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Table 1 Examples of where people with different kinds of experiential knowledge are the most appropriate be involved in research projects

From: Who should I involve in my research and why? Patients, carers or the public?

Topic of the research People with relevant experiential knowledge to contribute through involvement
A clinical trial of a thumb splint for arthritis People with arthritis of the thumbs (patients)
Testing the use of insulin pumps in pregnancy Women with diabetes who have had children or wish to have children or have experience of using pumps during pregnancy (patients)
Evaluating new forms of psychological support for people affected by cancer People with experience of different kinds of cancer (patients)
Partners, relatives or friends of people who have had different kinds of cancer (carers)
Testing a new screening programme for lung cancer in people who smoke but have no symptoms People who smoke but do not have lung cancer
(a specific group of members of the public)
Exploration of the risk factors for hospitalisation with Covid-19 People from groups who have been amongst those who have been hospitalised more often with COVID-19 e.g. older people, people from BAME groups (specific groups of members of the public)
Testing new forms of support for distressed midwives Midwives with experience of stress at work (health professionals) [13]
Parents with experience of birth assisted by midwives under stress (a specific group of members of the public)
Reducing the risk of asthma in damp housing Residents in a local community with experience of living in damp housing (a specific group of members of the public)
An intervention to increase up take of cervical screening by Asian women Women eligible for cervical screening within the Asian community (a specific group of members of the public)
Testing a new skin cream for babies with eczema Parents/ carers of babies with eczema (carers)
Evaluation of employment policies that aim to reduce health inequalities Trade union representatives with experience of how their fellow workers fare under different policies [14]
(a specific group of members of the public)